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What is Hair Transplantation?
Hair transplantation is the most natural and permanent way for making people, who suffer from hair loss, have new hair. In hair transplantation, the healthy hair of the patient himself/herself is implanted to the areas of hair loss. The region where the hair is taken is an area where there is no hair loss. The patients regain their own hair permanently by hair transplantation as if they have never lost it. Our aim in hair transplantation is to provide the natural hair look for the patient in a comfortable way with modern medical procedures. Hair transplantation was first performed in Japan in the 1930s and it first appeared in the Western World in the 1950s.
Who can undergo hair transplantation?
In our day, almost fifty percent of men over the age of 50 face the hair loss problem. Thus, hair transplantation is the most frequent cosmetic surgery for men. Hair loss is not a condition specific to men. Many women also experience hair loss or thinning problems.
Why is there hair loss?
Genetic features are one of the most important causes of hair loss, but it may also occur as a result of aging, traumatic injuries or various medical disorders. Hair transplantation can be successfully performed for all people with a sufficient amount of hair follicles regardless of the cause of hair loss. The transplantation method can successfully be performed not only on the scalp but also for the losses in the other hairy body parts such as the eyebrows, mustache and beard.
How is the hair transplantation done?
In the procedure, the hair follicles taken generally from the nuchal area are transplanted to the targeted hairless area. These hair follicles taken are called grafts. In rare cases, there is not a sufficient amount of healthy hair in the nuchal area or in the temporal region of the patient. In such cases, hair follicles may be taken from other body parts with hair, such as the arms or the chest wall of the patient. The procedure is completed within a few hours depending on the amount of hair loss. If the hairless area is too large, several sessions may be needed to complete the treatment. In general, the intervention is carried out with sedation under local anesthesia. A special bandage is applied to the head section of the patient after the procedure and the patient is discharged a few hours later. Although pain is rare, pain control is provided with pain relievers. The patient can generally go back to work by keeping the head covered after a 3-days home rest. The first medical wound dressing is done on the 5th day.
Which methods are used for hair transplantation?
In the hair transplantation procedures; FUE method that does not leave any scar or FUT method that may leave a slight scar in the back part of the head are performed with success. Whereas the hair follicles are taken one by one and implanted to the deficient areas in the FUE method, a skin band containing hair is taken from the nuchal area in the FUT method. The patient who will undergo hair transplantation should have healthy hair at the back part of the head and on the sides to be used as donor areas. Other factors such as the color and thickness of the hair, its properties such as strength and waviness are influential in the result of the procedure. The method to be preferred should be decided after hair and scalp analysis by taking also the priorities of the patient into consideration. Although FUE method that does not leave a scar is mostly preferred, it may be necessary to use the FUT method in some cases. Hair transplantation may be performed not only for balding but to increase the hair density in the thinned areas.
What is the most important factor for hair transplantation?
Hair transplantation is a serious surgical procedure. To minimize the risks in hair transplantation, it should be carried out in a hospital setting. To get the best results, it is very important that the procedure is carried out by experienced plastic surgeons who have taken training on this subject. For the hair transplantation to be successful, the hair follicles should be vascularized rapidly, that is they should “adhere” in the area where the follicles are placed. If done by a correct method, the success rate of hair transplantation is quiet high. For a natural look, the hair should be transplanted to the hair loss areas with a correct distance, correct angle and correct density.
Does the transplanted hair fall out?
The hair that has been transplanted is shed within a few weeks following the transplantation procedure but this is normal situation because the lost hair will grow again 3-4 months later. After this temporary shedding has recovered, the transplanted hair follicles preserve their characteristics and they are not shed. However, the original hair in the same area may continue to be lost and a new hair transplantation may be planned depending on the decrease in the hair density. Hair loss may persist progressively after the surgical procedure. If an unnatural look appears especially in the new hair line region, an additional surgical intervention may again be needed later.
What are the risks in hair transplantation?
Hair transplantation presents some risks when it is not carried out under suitable conditions just as it is the case with all medical interventions. However, when the hair transplantation procedure is carried out by an experienced plastic surgeon in a hospital setting, the complications are very rarely seen. Hair transplantation is a long procedure and several transplants may be needed within 1-2 years depending on the degree of the hair loss. Complications such as infection and significant scars may be seen although these are very rare. After the operation, pain that can be controlled by pain relievers, sensation of disturbance, some amount of bruising and swelling may be observed. Numbness may occur in the areas where the hair is taken or where the hair is transplanted and this recovers spontaneously within 2-3 months.
About Aesthetic, Plastic and Reconstructive Procedures
Deals with plastic surgery, aesthetic and reconstructive surgery (renovation surgery). Cosmetic surgery reshapes the normal body structures and develops the appearance of the individual and his perception of himself. Reconstructive surgery is applied on abnormal body structures that were formed in connection with the birth or those that have appeared afterward, and its initial purpose is to recover the functions of the body structures that are affected as much as possible.
1) Application Areas Of Aesthetic – Cosmetic Interferences
- Nose deformations
- Deformations of facial bones
- Deformations of the jaw bone
- Excessive lipidosis in the abdomen, legs, and arms, irregularities in fat accumulation
- Disproportions in the breast (largeness-smallness) and sagging breasts
- Skin problems: wrinkles, undesired blots, and tattoos, traces
- Aging of the face: sagging, wrinkling of the skin and muscles of the face-neck
- Lower-upper eyelid sagging
2) Reconstruction Of Congenital Deficiencies And Developmental Abnormalities
- Birthmarks, nevus, hemangiomas
- Abnormal breast development
- Cleft lip and palate
- Hand, finger and arm anomalies
- Face, facial bones and skull anomalies
- Flap-ear and other ear anomalies
- Urogenital system development anomalies in males and females
3) Reconstruction Of Anomalies That Are Developed Because of Trauma Or Diseases
- Incisions, scars
- Treatment of burns and burn sequelae
- Soft tissue injuries
- Cancer surgery and reconstruction in the head, neck, body, and extremities
- Losses and deformities in the breast that is gained after cancer or injuries
- Non-healing injuries, bed compression injuries
- Emergency finger, hand and arm injuries, losses
- Jaw injuries, fractures, jaw joint disorders
- Facial bone fractures, face injuries, facial paralysis
- Eyelid injuries or disorders that prevent vision
- All types of soft tissue deficiencies that are formed after accidents
Face Lift/ Brow Lift
- Performed Surgical Interference: Sagged – wrinkled skin in the face-neck and brow area and surplus fat tissues are taken also face is lifted and rejuvenated by applying muscles and skin hangers
- Duration of operation: 3 hours, it may be shorter or longer according to the amount required: 2-4 hours
- Anesthesia conditions: General anesthesia, local anesthesia under sedation for regional interferences
- Hospitalization: 1-2 days, In Brow Lift: 0-1 day
- Possible ailments: Temporary bruises and swelling, sensitivity or loss of sensation in the skin and temporary feeling of tension. Dry skin
- Risks: Damage in the facial nerves: mostly in relation to the swelling and rarely permanent or temporary based on the damage. Asymmetry in the brow
- Return to work: 14-20 days
- Severe exercise: 2 weeks
- Healing of bruises: 2-3 weeks
- Protection from the sun: 4-6 months
Aesthetic Surgery Of Eyelids- Blepharoplasty
- Performed Surgical Interference: Removal of sagging and pouching by removal of surplus skin-fat and muscles
- Duration of operation: 30 minutes – 2 hours. Varies according to the following applications; upper, lower and upper + lower eyelid
- Anesthesia conditions: General anesthesia or local anesthesia under sedation.
- Hospitalization: No need for an overnight stay, the patient is temporarily followed for a period or 1 day.
- Possible ailments: a Temporary feeling of tension and bruises, eye drying or wetting, temporary itching in the eyes
- Risks: Bleeding ( The usage of drugs that may increase bleeding must be stopped 2 weeks before the operation), infection, rare contraction at the lower lid
- Return to work: 7-10 days
- Reading: 3rd day
- Contact lens usage: 2nd week
- Fading of bruises completely: 2 weeks
Aesthetic Nasal Surgery – Rhinoplasty
Performed Surgical Interference: Reconstruction of the nose by making it smaller or bigger. Nose hump correction, nostril reduction, and nose tip refinement and reshaping. In the meantime, correction of the septum deviations that are available.
- Duration of operation: 1-3 hours
- Anesthesia conditions: General anesthesia
- Hospitalization: 0 – 1 day
- Possible ailments: Swelling around the eye, bruises, temporary headache, and small leakages in the first 2 days
- Risks: Irregularities that may require revision
- There will be a tampon in the nose for 48 hours after the operation, nose plaster is used in the first 1 week, and nose bandage is used in the second week
- Return to work: 1-2 weeks
- Severe exercise: 2-3 weeks
- Not to wear eyeglasses – protection from strokes for 8 weeks
- Complete disappearance of swellings: 2 months
- Final form of the nose that will not change: 1 year
Fat Removal – Liposuction
- Performed Surgical Interference: Shaping of the body by suction of the surplus fat tissues that are resistant towards exercise and diet. Areas where the procedure is most frequently performed: hips, abdomen and its perimeter, legs, arms, neck-gill
- Duration of operation: Generally 1- 2 hours, occasionally 3 hours
- Anesthesia conditions: General anesthesia, local or epidural anesthesia
- Hospitalization: Patients do not generally stay at the hospital or they may stay for 1 day
- Possible ailments: Temporary bruises, swelling, sensitivity or loss of sensation
- Risks: Asymmetry, irregularities in the skin, application of excessive amounts of fluid or loss of fluid in excessive amounts
- Healing period: various corsets are worn according to the size of the area where liposuction is performed
- Return to work: 1-2 weeks
- Severe exercise: 3-4 weeks
- Complete disappearance of swellings and bruises: 1-6 months
- Diet and exercise programs must be applied
- Performed Surgical Interference: Beautification of the sizes and shapes of the breasts via various types of breast prosthesis
- Duration of operation: 40 minutes -2 hours
- Anesthesia conditions: General anesthesia or local anesthesia under sedation
- Hospitalization: Generally not necessary, 0-1 day
- Possible ailments: Temporary ache, swelling, temporary decrease in the sense of the nipple. Sensitivity in the breast towards touching for several weeks
- Risks: Formation of a stiff sheath around the prosthesis that is in the breast (capsular contracture), general surgical risks such as bleeding and infection, increase or decrease in the sensitivity of the nipple, may require an experienced radiologist on the subject in the subsequent mammographies
- Return to work: 1-3 work
- Physical contact with the breasts in 2-3 weeks, during this period sports bra is worn
- Fading of marks: 2-4 months
- Performed Surgical Interference: Lifting and reshaping of the sagging breasts and nipples
- Duration of operation: 1- 3 hours
- Anesthesia conditions: General anesthesia or local anesthesia under sedation in very restricted interferences
- Hospitalization: Generally 1 day, no overnight stay in small interferences.
- Possible ailments: Temporary bruises, swelling, loss of sensitivity, temporary drying in the skin, operation marks
- Risks: Marks becoming distinctive, infection, skin damages, asymmetry in nipples, loss of sensitivity in the skin
- Post operation, bandage, and bra are worn until the healing at the suture areas.
- Return to work: 1-2 weeks
- Severe exercise: 1 month
- Fading of marks: several months-1 year
About Gynecomastia Surgery
(Male Breast Reduction)
Gynecomastia (guy-nuh-koh-MAS-tee-uh) is swelling of the breast tissue in boys or men, caused by an imbalance of the hormones estrogen and testosterone. Gynecomastia can affect one or both breasts, sometimes unevenly. Newborns, boys going through puberty and older men may develop gynecomastia as a result of normal changes in hormone levels, though other causes also exist.
Generally, gynecomastia isn’t a serious problem, but it can be tough to cope with the condition. Men and boys with gynecomastia sometimes have pain in their breasts and may feel embarrassed.
Gynecomastia may go away on its own. If it persists, medication or surgery may help.
- Performed Surgical Interference: Removal of the surplus fat and skin that are occurred in the abdomen and tummy area plus thinning and compression of the abdominal wall
- Duration of operation: 2 hours – 3 hours
- Anesthesia conditions: General anesthesia
- Hospitalization: Duration of hospitalization varies according to the condition of the patient and the duration of the operation. 2 – 4 days
- Possible ailments: Temporary pain, swelling, sensitivity, and bruises that may remain for several weeks on the skin of the abdomen
- Risks: Infection, bleeding under the skin, scar being significant because of bad healing and skin damage
- Return to work: 2-4 weeks, the corset is worn during this period
- Severe exercise: 4-6 weeks
- Period required for the marks to become flat and indistinct: 3 months – 2 years
Sustainable Weight Loss in Obesity Treatment: “Bariatric Surgery”
The surgical procedures, which are performed to patients who are unable to lose weight regardless of the treatments administered and of diets and who have a Body Mass Index (BMI) over 40 or over 35 and suffering from chronic diseases, and therefore, to patients who have serious medical problems, are known as “Bariatric Surgery” or “Obesity Surgery”. With obesity surgery, not only patients may get back to their normal weight, but also the prevalence of diseases related to obesity are reduced; that’s why bariatric surgery plays a crucial role for treatment of obesity. Laparoscopic surgery for obesity shortens the recovery period. The researches on bariatric surgery patients show that patients who have undergone bariatric surgery are less likely to develop the types of cancer linked to obesity when compared to patients who did not undergo bariatric surgery. The reason for this is that while weight loss with dieting and exercise result in 7-10% of weight loss, bariatric surgery ensures 80% of weight loss is supported by necessary lifestyle changes.
Who is a candidate for bariatric surgery?
In the pre-operative period, eating and drinking habits of patient, diabetes and lifestyle and the status of other health disorders are taken into consideration. Especially, patients between 18 and 60 years of age may undergo this operation. There are several conditions for patients to undergo an operation.
Having body mass index over 40 or having body mass index between 35 and 40 and suffering from diseases linked to obesity.
Suffering from an incurable obesity for at least 5 years.
No change in the course of the disease as a result of drug treatment and dieting.
Not suffering from endocrine diseases.
Not suffering from alcohol or drug addiction.
Complete perception and adaptability and being coordinative with obesity team in the post-operative period.
Not having a condition that prevents the surgical operation.
Which surgery procedures are used for surgical treatment of obesity?
Restrictive and malabsorptive surgeries
Certain restrictive surgeries, such as gastric banding, have lost their efficiency. Although the efficiency of malabsorptive surgeries is high; they have quite many adverse effects. Nowadays, the most efficient bariatric surgery is the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (gastric sleeve surgery). The most important point for these operations is that patients should know that a new life is waiting for them in the postoperative period. Adopting a low carbohydrate-high protein diet by the guidance of a nutritionist; eating little and often; properly chewing food; getting multivitamin, calcium and vitamin D supports and adding physical exercises are very important.
Gastric Sleeve Surgery
Gastric sleeve surgery is a bariatric operation, during which approximately 80% of the stomach is removed. The weight loss is achieved with more than one mechanisms. First of all, the significantly reduced stomach volume leads to less food intake, and therefore, less calories. However, the main effect is not restricting the food intake, but the change it creates on hormones regulating the hunger, fullness and blood glucose.
Looking at short-term results, we may say that gastric sleeve surgery, like the older method gastric bypass, is an important surgical operation both for weight loss and for complete treatment of or recovery from the metabolic disorders, such as diabetes. Moreover, likewise in gastric bypass, the metabolic effect of gastric sleeve surgery is independent of weight loss. Short after surgical operation, high blood glucose level is reduced to normal and diabetic drugs or insulin are totally or partially discontinued, even before the weight loss starts. Furthermore, gastric sleeve surgery has less complication, when compared to gastric bypass surgery. The gastric sleeve surgery is favored as it is a restrictive surgery, it ensures the loss 50-60% of body weight easily soon after surgical operation, it does not require change in food passage route in the gastrointestinal system, it shortens the hospitalization period, and it has a positive effect on hormones regulating hunger, fullness and blood glucose.
Gastric Bypass Surgery
Gastric bypass surgery is an older operation method in comparison to other bariatric surgery methods. Therefore, it may be deemed as the most used bariatric surgery among others. In the first step of gastric bypass surgery, the stomach is reduced to 30 milliliters. The gastric tissue close to esophagus and stomach junction is used. The stomach is connected to the small intestine. There are two types of gastric bypass surgery. In the first type, the small intestine is formed in a thin circle and is connected to the stomach. This is called “Mini-gastric bypass”. In the second type of gastric bypass surgery, the small intestine is bypassed and one end is connected to the stomach, while the other end is connected to the small intestine. This method is known as “Roux en Y gastric bypass”. Except for small technical differences, the two methods have similar surgical results. The mechanism in gastric bypass surgery is restrictive as in gastric sleeve surgery, i.e. patient may intake limited amount of food and bile salts and pancreas enzymes found in duodenum meet the nutrients in a distal part of small intestine. Therefore, the breakdown and absorption of nutrients are rendered difficult and the absorption mechanism is changed. In other words, the patient eats less and gets less benefits from nutrients. The change in gastrointestinal hormones is more significant than in gastric sleeve surgery. The patient feels less hungry, even though eating less and blood glucose is regulated. Losing 60-80% of body weight is one of its advantages. The gastric bypass surgery is a food intake restrictive method and it has a more significant effect on gastrointestinal hormones. Also, it is a reversible procedure in comparison with gastric sleeve surgery.
Other operations –duodenal switch- are very specific surgical operations, when we look at the group who underwent an operation or at the rarity of surgical operations; and therefore, patients should be evaluated by the centers.
The most important point for these operations is that patients should know that a new life is awaiting for them in the postoperative period. Adopting a low carbohydrate-high protein diet by guidance of a nutritionist; eating little and often; properly chewing food; getting multivitamin, calcium and vitamin D supports and adding physical exercises are very important. Since patients may feel full with less food, they have no problem to adopt a new life style in the post-operative period.
WHAT IS ONLINE DIET?
For the first step, you will need to fill up the “Color Diet Information Form”. So the dietitian can get the information she needs about your nutritional status.
You will receive a call within 24-48 hours after you fill up the form. Thus, you will make your first detailed meeting with the dietitian by the telephone.
After your phone meeting, the dietitian will prepare a customized “Colored Diet Program”. You will receive your online program in 12 hours; by mail and via WhatsApp.
Depending on your request; You will receive motivational messages every day. The dietitian will answer all the questions you want to ask during working hours on WhatsApp.
With the practical and colorful recipes that the dietitian will give every 15 days, you will have the most fun and colorful diet. In the meantime, you will have some healthy getaways while losing weight.
When planning each new diet program; the dietitian considers the nutrients you want to consume and your personal plans and programs like birthdays, trips, meeting etc.
Every week you will have a target weight; the aim is to reach these goals. The dietitian will support you on this journey.
A week after the online diet program is finished, you will have a detailed phone call to evaluate the program outcome with our dietitian. You will evaluate the results of the program with your dietitian and will start to a new program if you need/ want.
- Online Diet with follow-ups
- Online Diet without follow-ups
- Online Diet during the pregnancy period
- Online Diet during the postnatally
- Online Diet for babies and children
- Online Diet for athletes
- Online Diet with follow-ups 7/24
- Daily color Detox
- Online Diet for vegan/vegetarian nutrition
Facts about IVF
The utmost reason why couples fail to have a baby is that they are not properly able to decide which procedure will be matched with their condition. The most important factor is the accurate evaluation of couples with great attention in every aspect and after that planning the treatment individually to their needs. With its 65% pregnancy rate which is above the world average, Memorial IVF teams are dedicated to help you make your little dream come true.
ICSI and IVF are exactly the same. In ICSI cycle each suitable mature egg is injected with a single prepared sperm cell which is obtained from the partner. ICSI was developed to treat cases of male infertility in which too few or poor quality sperms were available in the ejaculate for IVF.
Memorial IVF teams put a lot of effort in working on incomplete in vitro fertilization cases, advanced maternal age, recurrent about us and intense infertility of man, as well as practicing preimplantation genetic diagnosis on families who have risk of inherited disorder.
In Memorial IVF Centers, many genetic disorders such as thalassemia, muscle diseases, hemophilia in the embryos can be recognized, thus we can help healthy infants born.
Thanks to the great success of our centers with the wide range of treatment procedures, Memorial IVF centers have outstanding importance in Turkey, Europe, and the World.
The Memorial Hospital IVF and Reproductive Genetics Centre has achieved many “firsts” in Turkey.
About the Department
Memorial Hospital Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Unit is headed by the team which consists of experienced and successful physiotherapists.
At Memorial Hospital Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Unit we provide high quality services on a trustworthy and friendly environment. Our team plans and applies the necessary treatment to relieve the pain and to improve the patient’s condition.
Considering today’s lifestyles and working conditions Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation is a highly important branch. Physiotherapy is used for the rehabilitation of neurological, orthopedic, pediatric, geriatric, gynecological, urogynecological and rheumatologic diseases; to diagnose muscle-skeletal system diseases; and to treat them. After relieving the pain, we provide preventive physiotherapy services to eliminate the cause of the disease.
Various physiotherapy treatment methods are available in our center. Some of them are new treatment methods such as Ionttophoresis therapy for the treatment of excessive hand, foot and underarm sweating and biofeedback for the treatment of vaginismus.
Available Rehabilitations in the Physiotherapy Center:
- Orthopedic Rehabilitation
- Neurological Rehabilitation
- Rheumatismal Rehabilitation
- Pediatric Rehabilitation
- Geriatric Rehabilitation
- Cardiovascular Rehabilitation
- Urogenital Rehabilitation
- Ampute Rehabilitation
About Orthopedics and Traumatology Procedures
Knee, shoulder, ankle, wrist, and elbow joint diseases could be treated by arthroscopic surgery in our Arthroscopy Center.
Hip, knee, shoulder and elbow prosthesis to treat calcification related joint defectiveness is being successfully performed in our center.
All kinds of scoliosis, spondylolisthesis and spinal fracture surgeries are being successfully performed in our Spine Surgery Unit.
Bone lengthening and deformity correction surgeries to treat congenital and non-congenital conditions are also being performed in our Center.
About General Surgery Procedures
Memorial Hospital acts as a pioneer by reorganizing its General Surgery Department. The basic philosophy beneath this reorganization, which we call “Subject Specific Surgery”, is the enormously growing scientific knowledge in the field of medicine.
Memorial Hospital is the first private hospital in Turkey which is approved and licensed for organ (liver and kidney) transplantation and related laboratory services (immunogenetics – tissue matching, HLA tissue typing – and immunological studies) by the Ministry of Health. Memorial is also the first private hospital to perform a liver transplant.
Innovations of the last 20-30 years are the basic support of the latest treatment methods and modern medical devices. In today’s fast-moving world almost 1/3 of the medical information become outdated within 5 years. On the other hand, general surgery is an important and extensive field of medicine. Because of the variety of diseases and treatment methods and fast developing technology, it is almost impossible for a surgeon to be expert on every subspecialty of general surgery; therefore, surgeons tend to specialize in one particular area of general surgery in today’s medicine.
A general surgeon specializes in one particular area of general surgery and develops an expertise in that area, we call this “Subject Specific Surgery”.
Even though it is called ‘’General Surgery’’ and is not officially separated into groups; there is a dominant effort to constitute subspecialty units.
Thus, general surgeons may concentrate on a specific area; they follow the very latest improvements in this area and improve their ability. It is possible to provide better quality services with a few surgeons who are masters of a subspecialty area of general surgery, Instead of a few general surgeons who try to master all surgical branches.
Memorial Hospital’s General Surgery Department consists of professors who are experts in different areas. Every Professor is responsible for his/her expertise area. Consequently, it is possible to provide efficient, adequate and quality healthcare services. More importantly, every professor acts as a part of a harmonized machine, instead of acting like several independent machines. Surgical indications and implementations depend on the decision of a team not on individual opinions; which integrate a serious auto-control mechanism into the system.
What is the Concept of General Surgery?
General surgery encompasses several different areas such as thyroid surgery, breast surgery, esophagus, intestines, rectal diseases (ex: hemorrhoid), liver, pancreas, gallbladder, bile duct, and hernia surgery.
Even though the education of general surgery includes all these areas; surgeons tend to specialize in particular areas.
The subspecialties are:
Hepato-pancreato-biliary system or liver-pancreas-gall bladder and bile duct surgery; gastrointestinal surgery (esophagus, stomach, intestines and rectal diseases); and thyroid (endocrine)-breast surgery.
“Our goal is to give the best service to our patients”.
About Robotic Surgery Procedures
Da Vinci Robotic Surgery or also known as robotics is the most advanced technology in the medical world and is especially used in Turkey, especially in major centers in the US, including the departments of urology, gynecology, general surgery, otorhinolaryngology, thoracic surgery, and cardiovascular surgery. The “da Vinci Robot Technology” stands out as a technology with special privileges it provides to the physician and the patient and is today one of the most successful surgical methods used in the fight against cancer all over the world. The robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery method, shortly known as “robotic surgery” has three main characteristics. The first of these is the imaging systems, which work with the principle of laparoscopic surgery. So the image is transferred through the body of the patient to the surgeon with the help of a camera. In contrast to laparoscopic surgery, in robotic surgery this image is three-dimensional and since the camera control is performed by a robot, the image is steady. Clear images can be obtained at a larger magnification by approaching the organ to be operated very closely. The surgeon controls the robot arms using a console. These robot arms are placed in the patient. Fiber optic cables in the console extend to the arms of the robot and transfer the small hand movements made by the surgeon to the robotic arms. Surgical instruments connected to the robotic arms can rotate 540 degrees so that they can move much more than hand movements. In addition, the natural shivering in the hands of a human is not conveyed to the tips of the surgical devices in robotic surgery. In this way, the margin of error is also minimized.
Da Vinci Robotic Surgery in Urological Surgeries
Robotic Surgery was first used in 1994 in the field of cardiovascular surgery. However, the most common usage was in urology surgeries. Since 2001 da Vinci has been used in prostate cancer surgery all over the world; it is also used in kidney, bladder and testicular cancers cases.
The ‘da Vinci Robotic Surgery’ technique is not a purely robot-dependent surgical practice. The experience of the surgical team is the most important factor in the success of the operation, whether it consists of open, laparoscopic or robotic procedures. All urology surgeries are carried out by an experienced team with the methods applied in the most developed centers in the world.
Nerve Protection in Prostate Cancer Center
Following prostate cancer surgery, which is the most common male cancer occurring especially in men over 50 years of age and developed in countries other than skin cancer, sexual dysfunction and urinary incontinence problems, which are the two most important risks negatively affecting the social life of men, can be observed. These risks, which can negatively affect the patient’s quality of life, are minimized in prostate cancer surgeries performed via the “da Vinci Robotic Surgery” technique. The erectile nerves and the urinary retention muscles adjacent to the prostate and leading to the penis are much better protected via robot technology. Thanks to this qualified protection, the risks of urinary incontinence and the risk of penile erectile dysfunction are minimized. With the “Interfacial Nerve Protection” technique applied via robot surgery, the risk of experiencing sexual activity problem after a surgery is minimized.
The privileges which the da Vinci also provides to the patient in prostate surgery:
- The length of hospital stay after the da Vinci Robotic surgery is 1 or 2 days. Approximately 95% of the patients have been discharged home on the second postoperative day.
- Only very small blood loss is present during surgery compared to traditional open surgery. Preoperative blood preparation is not required.
- In the hospitalization period and after leaving the hospital, very little pain relief is required. This is because the patients do not feel pain.
- In the first week after surgery (approximately 4 or 6 days later), a catheter is placed into the urethra. In open surgery, this period usually ranges from 14 to 31 days.
- Approximately 90% of patients return to their routine work with or after 3 weeks of operation with da Vinci Robotic Surgery.
Kidney Protective Effect in Kidney Tumor Operations
In kidney tumor surgeries performed via the da Vinci technique, cancer control is provided in the best possible way. Only the tumor tissue is removed and the healthy kidney is left in the patient. Under the three-dimensional and high-resolution enlarged image with robot technology, the tumor is easily removed from the kidney by performing depth calculation in the tissue. The area where the tumor emerges can be sutured quickly and with depth control. After the removal of the tumor tissue, the resulting tissue cavity opened veins and injured urinary channels are repaired extensively and rapidly by using robotic arms. This method can be performed for the removal of the kidney in large-scale kidney cancer.
The privileges which the da Vinci provides to the patient in kidney surgery:
- Hospital stay is short and rapid recovery is achieved.
- Postoperatively, less pain is present and less pain relief medications are used.
- The patient returns to his/her daily activities in a short time.
- The aesthetic appearance does not deteriorate due to the small surgical incisions.
- The surgery is performed with robot arms, with which a steady procedure is achieved.
Testicular Cancer Surgery Via 4 Holes With Robotic Surgery
The closed testicular surgery with da Vinci Robotic Surgery has been successfully applied at Memorial Şişli Hospital. Testicular cancer operations are based on the principle of opening up the abdominal wall between the pelvis, removing the intestines and cleaning the lymph nodes around the large vessels starting from the lower end of the bone called sternum, this can be performed via a few holes completely closed with robot technology. The large incisions required for the open surgery of patients with testicular cancer have become history, thanks to the comfort provided by the robotic surgery that provide the patients with great privileges.
Testicular cancer surgeries performed with da Vinci Robotic Surgery;
- Pain, infection and wound healing risks in large incisions decrease with robotic surgery.
- The patient’s intestines are not removed as in open surgery. Therefore, the risk of infection and drying up of the intestines is eliminated.
- Some neural structures that have an effect on sexual functions that are located around the aorta or large vessels can be observed more clearly with the robotic surgery technique. These can be protected more effectively. Therefore, less problems arise related to semen discharge.
- Since chemotherapy may have long-term side effects, robotic surgery may provide advantages in certain patient groups.
- Difficulties to be experienced in post-operative patient regarding becoming pregnant can be eliminated; sperm obtained from the patient before the operation can be stored in a sperm bank and be used for assisted reproduction techniques.
Artificial Bladder from the Intestine via Da Vinci
In developed countries; bladder cancer, which is ranking 4th in men and 7th in women, is treated with da Vinci Robotic Surgery without creating a surgical incision on the body. In open bladder cancer operations; at a point starting 4-5 cm above the belly, the bladder and lymph nodes are removed with an incision extending to the pelvic bone, and the bladder made from the intestine is also connected to the normal urinary tract. In addition, patients who have their bladder removed may have problems such as carrying bags continuously in their bellies or using urethral catheter at regular intervals. In bladder cancer operations performed with da Vinci Robotic Surgery, two different principles are applied. First; After the removal of the bladder and lymph nodes with the robot, the procedure of the new bladder creation from the intestines is performed via an open method and the operation is completed. However, a large incision is required for this surgical technique and since the intestines are taken out of the body, problems such as infection, drying, fluid and heat loss may occur. Bladder cancer operations in the Memorial Şişli Hospital Robotic Surgery Center are performed in a completely closed manner which is a technique used only by very few centers and surgeons around the globe. The operation consists of removal of the bladder, removal of the lymph nodes around the large vessels, bladder reconstruction from the intestines, connection of the urinary canals to this new bladder and the normal urethra connection, after which the surgery is completed in a completely robotic technique.
The privileges provided by the robot in bladder cancer surgery;
- With Da Vinci Robotic Surgery, the patient avoids a very large surgical incision. Surgery can performed via only 6 holes of 8-15 millimeters each.
- Incision hernias may be observed in open surgery incision, the incision sutures may rupture and another surgery may become necessary; all the complications are eliminated vi da Vinci Robotic Surgery.
- Because of the robotic method, the possibility of bleeding during surgery decreases.
- As the patient is operated without opening up the patient, the risks such as drying of the intestines, infection and heat loss are significantly reduced.
- After surgery, patients can recover in a shorter time and return to their normal lives.
- In bladder cancer surgery, the bladder and prostate are removed together. This is because in one-third of patients with bladder cancer, prostate cancer may develop as well while the patients are unaware of this. During extraction of the prostate, the sexual function providing nerves and urine retention mechanism are better preserved thanks to the magnification, close-up vision and better illumination of the robot.
- Patients with bladder cancer who undergo surgery with Da Vinci Robotic Surgery; begin to eat on the 2nd and 3rd days post operation. If the bowel movements have become sufficient and if everything goes well, they are discharged in less than a week. At the end of 3 weeks with a catheter, the complete healing of the sutures of the urinary bladder formed from intestines is checked, if healing is complete, the catheter is removed.
- In women, in case of bladder cancer the uterus and ovaries are removed as well. Since the uterus is removed from the birth canal, the repair can also be done by the robot during the operation.
Robotic Solution for UPJ Obstruction
Conventional laparoscopic surgery has been an important breakthrough in the surgical treatment of conditions such as renal pain or obstruction of the renal exit (UPJ obstruction) which is detected incidentally at a young age. This surgery is performed with 97% success in laparoscopic procedures. However, with conventional laparoscopy, disadvantages such as millimetric hand shaking, two-dimensional images and the limited mobility of the instruments are eliminated thanks to the three dimensional images, non-shaking robotic arms and perfect movement abilities of the da Vinci Robotic technology.
Role of Robotic Surgery in Urinary Incontinence
In women, especially in cases of urinary incontinence due to sagging of the bladder, even in cases with no incontinence but sagging forward as to be palpable, Vinci Robotic surgery method can be applied. With the robot technology, it is possible to treat the bladder with 100% success and to prevent sagging. Robotic surgery comes into the foreground because it provides the advantage of being able to put fast stitches in the body with the mobility of robotic arms in the sacrocolpopexy operations performed especially in cases called prolapses. Due to the weakening of the sagging ligaments and other supportive tissues, repairing the hanging tissues using synthetic fabrics can be performed for repair purposes, the da Vinci Robotic technology also provides a great advantage in this type of repair.
Da Vince Robotic Surgery in Gynecological Surgeries
In addition to urology and general surgery, da Vinci Robotic Surgery is the most common surgical treatment of gynecological diseases. According to 2013 data, the number of surgeries performed with robots in female diseases is higher than urology surgeries. Robot technology has brought a new dimension to long-term laparoscopic gynecology surgeries, thanks to the surgeon’s ability to perform a surgery on the console while sitting down.
Outstanding technology success in cancer surgery
Gynecological, uro-gynecologic and oncologic surgeries are among the most difficult surgeries. Robotic surgery is used as the most advanced technology in all gynecologic cancers except advanced stage ovarian cancers. It can be used in all stages of the “endometrium” cancer, also known as uterine cancer and cervix cancers within surgical margins. Robotic surgery is also used for myomectomy surgeries performed due to infertility and uterine sagging. When the uterine myoma are removed and closed via the laparoscopic method, the risk rupture of the healing area during the next pregnancy may increase due to the failure of the suture. However, the risk of stitching is minimal in robotic surgery thanks to its superior sutures. In the later stages of endometriosis, it is difficult to clean them with laparoscopic surgery because the surrounding tissues are very adherent. Robotic surgery is preferred because movements are performed more easily via robots in such surgeries
Robotic surgery offers many advantages for both the patient and the surgeon thanks to the technological developments and ease of use. The patient stay and recovery time is much shorter than open surgery. Moreover, there are no surgical traces since only some small incisions are made. Robotic surgery provides easy access to the pelvic system. The mobility of the devices used is also very high. The surgical procedure is carried out in an advanced, comfortable and fast way. The surgery is performed more safely because hand vibrations are not conveyed to the robotic arms. Less risk of bleeding is present. The recovery time of the patient is shortened. The risk of infection is lower. The three-dimensional imaging advantage facilitates the surgeon’s work. Since the surgeon works by sitting on a console during the surgery, it is less effortful and does not affect the surgeons concentration.
Da Vinci Robotic Surgeru in General Surgery Related Surgeries
Surgeries performed with a small incision “minimally invasive” surgeries, are preferred primarily in cancer treatments as is the case in many other area nowadays. These technologies, which are used today, are considered as the most important development in modern surgery and offer many privileges to patients and physicians in comparison to classical open surgery. Thanks to minimally invasive methods, the most difficult surgeries are performed in a way to provide comfort to the patient due to surgical and technological developments. Laparoscopic surgery compared to open surgery minimizes the length of hospital stay and offers the patient a rapid recovery.
Robotic surgery, which is considered as the most advanced technology in the last 10 years among the minimally invasive surgeries, is being used in general surgery, especially in cancer surgeries. The da Vinci Robotic System is the most advanced surgical technology of our age, controlled by the surgeon, achieving the deepest points during surgery, with a 3-dimensional and clear image, providing multi-angle mobility with robotic arms and without the slightest shaking. The da Vinci Robotic System enters through the small holes opened into the abdominal wall of the abdomen, displaying the deepest organs within the body under 10-fold magnification and in high-resolution with three-dimensional imaging. It enables the surgeon to control the surgery via robotic arms with 7 sizes and thin-small surgical instruments on the tips thereof within the body of the patient.
The “da Vinci Robotic Surgery” provides comfort to the patient
- It does not require a large surgical incision as is the case in open surgery. The process is performed through small holes.
- The surgery is performed with 10 times larger and clearer images.
- The image quality is high resolution and three-dimensional. Thanks to the 3-D image, depth advantage is ensured.
- It is easy to position with small robotic arms that do not shake and move at 720 degrees .
- The presence of vessels and nerves is clearly imaged.
- It is a more successful method compared to open surgery in tumor operations.
- Bowel activities return to pre-op conditions much faster.
- The nutrition of the patient returns to normal faster than in open surgery.
- The risk of infection at the surgical site is low.
Robotic Technology in Cancer Surgery
Upper Gastrointestinal System
The da Vinci Robotic System, which has been developing rapidly all over the world since 2001, is becoming increasingly popular nowadays. Interventions can be performed more conveniently and safely with superior tissue separation suturing techniques of the da Vinci Robotic System for upper gastrointestinal surgery.
- GERD (Reflux Surgery)
- Hiatal Hernia
- Stomach and Stomach Cancer
- Achalasia (Esophagus lower tip narrowness)
Small Intestine Surgeries
Use of Robotic System; It is important because of the procedures applied to the patient and the ability of the surgeon to facilitate their interventions. It enables the surgeon to perform thinner tissue separations and more comfortable sutures by providing more detailed monitoring of vessels and nerves. It provides the opportunity to adhere to the principles of cancer surgery. It facilitates the approach to the tissue by providing 3D (three-dimensional) appearance, with more features than laparoscopic cameras. This enables the surgeon to see more and move more in areas that are difficulty in open surgeries.
- Narrowness of small intestine (due to Crohn’s disease)
- Small intestine tumors
The Robotic System, starts with the form of laparoscopy surgery, and used at the stage where superior dexterity comes into use. In this method, no incision the size of a hand is required, neither is hand supported surgery required.
The privileges provided to the patient;
– Better clinical data on cancer control in many cases,
– Faster improvement in intestinal function,
– Faster transition to normal nutrition
– Significantly less pain,
– Lower blood loss, lower risk of wound infection,
– Shorter hospital stay,
– Provides shorter recovery time.
Robotic System In colorectal surgery;used in colon cancer, rectum cancer and prolapse surgeries.
HPB (LIVER-PANCREAS-BILE TRACT) SURGERY
Instead of the open surgical method for repair, especially in biliary tract injuries, the da Vinci Robotic System is able to perform repair more precisely and without major incisions.
- Neuroendocrine Surgery
- Pancreas body, tail cyst and tumors
- Spleen Protective Surgery
- Gallbladder and Bile Tract Surgeries
- Spleen Surgeries
Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery in Pancreas Cancer Surgery
Pancreatic cancer is the most dangerous cancer within intra-abdominal cancers. The frequency is increasing and in recent years, quite extensive studies are carried out. It is the location of the organ that makes pancreatic cancer more important than other types of cancer. The pancreas, which plays a very important role in the body, is difficult to intervene surgically. Therefore, the term “untouchable” is usually used for the pancreas.
Pancreatic Cancer Treatment Process
If the patient is diagnosed with pancreatic cancer via MRI or tomography, a biopsy should be performed to determine if the diagnosis is definite. If a mass is detected and the patient has complaints such as jaundice and weight loss, the diagnosis is probably correct. Endoscopic biopsy may be necessary in suspected cases. The most important stage of treatment is surgery. Whether the patient’s tumor will be surgically removed is determined by staging. If no metastasis is present in the liver or other organs and the involvement of large vessels is not severe, the patient is operated first. Additional treatments are planned according to the patient’s condition after the surgery. In patients with no chance of surgery, chemotherapy is administered first. In the case of regression of the tumor with drug treatments, it is reassessed whether the patient can be a candidate for surgery. In case of metastasis of pancreatic cancer to many foci and distant organs in the body, first of all, chemotherapy and then alternative treatment options are discussed. The most important point that should not be considered in pancreatic cancer is that the behavior of the tumor varies from person to person as is the case in every cancer type. Therefore, each patient has a chance of treatment and these options should be investigated.
Current Surgeries in Pancreatic Cancer Surgery
In recent years, the most important development in pancreatic cancer surgery is the use of minimally invasive methods, these being laparoscopic and robotic surgeries. The laparoscopic surgery is also performed in patients with pancreatic cancer by entering through a few holes with special tools without causing a large incision on the body. Laparoscopic surgery; if the location of the pancreas tumor is in the trunk or tail, this surgery modality should be primarily considered. In pancreatic head tumors, if the tumor is detected at an early stage, there is no uptake in the main vein and the patient’s age is appropriate, laparoscopic surgery can be performed.
In pancreatic cancers, robotic surgery provides the following important privileges to the patient and the physician;
- Robotic surgery offers the advantages of open surgery and laparoscopic procedures.
- With robotic surgery, cancer can be better controlled.
- It decreases the risk of infection during the surgery and increases the chance of survival of the patient as it does not cause major surgical incisions on the body.
- During surgery, vessels, lymph nodes and other formations are better displayed, which increases the chance of surgery.
- The spleen can be protected during surgery.
- After surgery, the intestines begin to work earlier, the patient feels less pain than in open surgeries, the patient can be discharged from the hospital in a shorter time and will recover and return to normal life faster. The absence of incisions or large scars on the body provide a better cosmetic result to the patient.
Treatment Alternatives in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancers
Pancreatic cancer most frequently metastasizes to the liver. Patients with this type of disease usually display late symptoms, the tumor is located in the trunk and tail of the pancreas. Surgery should not be considered as a treatment option to provide rapid response to the patient. Only patients whose biopsy results or radiological images have been identified as neuroendocrine tumors can be treated and treated quickly. The treatment for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer is chemotherapy. However, chemotherapy treatment should also be performed after the patient’s condition has been evaluated and the response is predicted.
Robotic Bariatric Surgery-Obesity Surgery:
The global use of the da Vinci Robotic Surgery technology laparoscopically and use thereof in obesity surgeries as well is providing special benefits to the physician the patient. Since the anatomical structures of obesity patients, the extra precision required in such operations can be achieved with the ability to move the arms of the robot with a great dexterity in the abdomen of the patient. Robotic technology, which provides the surgeon with a three-dimensional and high-resolution image, allows the protection of organs, tissues and nerves adjacent to the region where the procedure is performed. In some patients, procedures that can be performed with few or a single hole without creating a surgical incision eliminate the aesthetic concerns of patients.
Tubular gastric surgery and gastric bypass operations are performed successfully by using robot technology in obesity surgeries.
The privileges of the robot technology for the patient and the physician can be listed as follows:
- Since the surgery is performed with a closed technique and through only a few holes, the risk of infection as is present in open surgery is eliminated.
- The surgeon performs the surgery with a 3-dimensional and digital appearance thanks to the robot technology with an opportunity to protect the nerve, blood vessels, muscles and tissues of the patient and decreased likelihood of injury.
- Thanks to robot technology, no surgical incision are required on the patient’s body. Since the procedure is performed through several holes rather than a single large incision, the patient faces much less risk of infection and has a comfortable recovery time with less pain.
- Since the patient’s time of stay till discharge, return to daily life and recovery time is shortened, pain control is provided, the patient is fed orally earlier on and recovers the body resistance in a shorter time.
- Once the patient reaches the quality of daily life, he/she is able to return to work and social life faster.
Robotic Surgery for Ear Nose throat Diseases
The use of robotic surgery in ear, nose, throat and head-neck surgery provides great advantages for patients. It is used in many ear, nose and throat diseases such as benign tumors and cysts which are located in the larynx, pharynx, tonsils, tongue and mouth. The da Vinci robotic surgery provides a comfortable and safe post operation period for the patients and enables them to return to their normal social life in a short duration.
How is robotic surgery used in ear nose throat surgery?
Robotic surgery is a technique and technology with a past of 10 years. Surgical treatment of ear nose throat problems has been used around the globe and in our country since 2010.
The da Vinci surgical system in general surgery and urology departments is used for surgeries such as abdominal surgeries via robot arms that enter the abdomen through holes on the skin of the abdomen. Otorhinolaryngology operations are performed by entering the oral cavity without any hole or incision. Therefore, in defining this surgical method, the term “Trans-oral Robotic Surgery“ which means ”Through the mouth”.
The da Vinci and trans-oral robotic surgeries are performed with instruments connected to robotic arms. These surgeries are carried out under three dimensional and 16 times enlarged endoscopic images using precision control systems with very small instruments that have the skill and sensitivity that the human hand cannot achieve.
Dependent on the disease on which surgical intervention will be performed, in surgeries performed through the mouth thinner and smaller instruments are utilized than in other robotic surgeries When the human hand is compared to the da Vinci robot; the fact that it eliminates the risk of shaking and has much more movement angles creates the opportunity to perform minimally invasive surgical procedures by protecting the healthy tissues and functions without damaging the vessel – nerve structures.
In which ear nose throat diseases is the da Vinci robotic surgery utilized?
- Benign and malignant tumors of the tonsils.
- Benign and malignant tumors of the tongue root
- Post-nasal, soft palate, cheek, pharynx area related benign tumors
- Benign and malignant tumors of the throat, cysts and cancers.
- The surgical treatment of sleep apnea syndrome and snoring.
In cases of advanced sleep apnea, the use of robotic surgery can eliminate the use of a CRAP device for the patient.
In addition, in the presence of an excessively large tongue (macroglossia), the procedure for manipulating the tongue with robotic surgery can be performed in experienced hands.
What are the advantages of robotic surgery to classical open surgery in ear nose throat surgeries?
In classical surgeries of the ear, throat and head-neck, large incisions are made in the neck area, the face and the jaw bone and the procedures are performed. Since these operations are performed by the oral method of Vinci robotic surgery, the surgery is completed without any incision on the skin and the healing process of the patient is much faster. All these procedures lead to less bleeding, less surgical scarring, and less risk of infection in patients. Patients have a short hospital stay and return to their normal nutritional habits and speech abilities much faster.
- Lack of surgery incision,
- Less pain,
- Less bleeding and reduced need for blood transfusions
- Lack of wound infection due to lack of surgery related skin wound,
- Ability to return to daily life in a very short time
- No need to drill holes in the throat for a procedure called tracheotomy,
- Fast recovery,
What are the advantages of robotic surgery to endoscopic surgery?
- The robot has more mobility than the 5 mm wrist, and the wrist mimicking tips reach the most remote locations and allow the surgical procedure to be performed.
- The ends of the robot can move 540 degrees on 7 planes. Endoscopic instruments can move in one plane.
- The robot eliminates hand shaking. In robotic surgery, the surgeon’s hand does not shake. In endoscopic surgery, shaking is a very serious problem.
- Tools may become curled and bent. Endoscopic instruments are rigid, cannot be bent.
- Sutures can be performed in robotic surgery. While in endoscopic surgery this is not the case.
- Robotic surgery provides a 3-dimensional view. Endoscopic surgery provides a 2-dimensional view
- In robotic surgery, the surgical area is magnified 16 times. Magnification is not possible with endoscopes.
- In endoscopic surgery, the surgeon can only utilize one hand since one hand is occupied holding the endoscope. In robotic surgery, the surgeon can use both hands in the surgical area. In addition, both hands of the surgeon can help with procedures at the surgical site. This enables the possibility of sutures and 4 procedures on the same site. While the surgery durations are shortened, procedures that cannot be performed in endoscopic surgery can be performed via robotic surgery.
How is the da Vinci robotic surgery utilized in sleep apnea surgeries?
One of the newest uses of robotic surgery is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. In obstructive sleep apnea, some levels of the upper respiratory tract become obstructed during sleep. With known methods, surgery is performed on the soft palate, tonsils and small tongue. However, these methods are not sufficient in more than half of the patients. In most of the obstructive sleep apnea patients, obstruction is observed at the tongue base and at the level of the flap above the epiglottis.
With previously known methods, the root of the tongue and flap above the larynx could not be approached without an incision. However, robotic surgery can be performed easily without a neck incision in this region. A multi-level surgery is performed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea via robotic surgery and all obstructions can be cleared. Patients who have to use sleep breathing apparatus such as CPAP are provided with the comfort of deviceless sleep.
How is robotic surgery utilized in throat cancer surgery
One of the areas where robotic surgery is used is laryngeal cancer. Robotic surgery is advantageously used in early stage patients where the upper part of the throat and the vocal cords are involved. Throat cancer surgery is performed via robotic surgery without opening a hole in the throat, no wound occurs on the neck.
The patient recovers in a shorter period of time and starts to talk and regains the ability to swallow much earlier. Robotic surgery can be used safely in early stage tumors of the larynx.
About Organ Transplantation Procedures
In modern medicine the organs that can be transplanted today are; the heart, lungs, heart-lungs simultaneously, liver, kidneys, pancreas and intestines. While the success rate of liver, heart and kidney transplant operations is high in Turkey lately pancreas transplants are also being performed.
In addition to the highly important patient – physician – hospital components, the organ donors are imperative components in organ transplantations. Due to a constant shortage of liver donors and the high percentage of liver disease, the wait period increases each year. Hundreds of people lose their lives annually waiting for livers to be transplanted.
Memorial Hospital Organ Transplantation Center is the first private healthcare institution to be approved and licensed by the Health Department for organ (liver and kidney) transplantation and related laboratory services.
Memorial Hospital Organ Transplantation Center holds a high success rate for performing successful transplantations of liver and kidney.
The most common reason for liver transplantation in adults is cirrhosis. Being mostly caused by Hepatitis B, cirrhosis is a disease in which previously healthy liver cells get damaged. Other conditions are known to cause cirrhoses are some congenital diseases and some metabolic diseases.
If someone is unable to continue his/her daily life and activities due to liver failure, then it is time for a liver transplant.
There are different sources of liver donors. Usually, the liver is obtained from a cadaveric donor (a person declared “brain dead” but all vital organs and systems are properly functioning). Due to a constant shortage of liver donors and the high percentage of liver disease, the waiting period increases each year. Hundreds of people lose their lives annually while waiting for a cadaveric liver to be transplanted. Donor livers can also be obtained from family members or friends who donate a portion of their livers to the patient.
Both blood type and liver size compatibility are essential for a liver transplant. It is possible to save the patient’s life by removing a portion of the living donor’s liver and transplant it to the recipient if a family member or a friend is willing to donate a portion of their liver.
A living donor doesn’t have to be related to the recipient by blood but the blood type must be compatible. The donor must be in good health and motivated to donate for altruistic reasons. If living donation is a feasible option for the patient, a donor evaluation will be performed after the recipient’s testing is completed. After testing the donor, the transplant team decides whether the donation can be performed. Living donors are usually the only chance for children. Ideally, liver transplants should be performed between patients whose blood types are matching. However, in emergency cases it could also be performed between non matching blood types to save the patient’s life. But matching of the liver sizes is a must.
About Cardiovascular Surgery
The team of Memorial Hospital Cardiovascular Surgery, develops itself with continuous education, and follows the scientific and technological improvements and permanently provides quality services.
Memorial hospital cardiovascular surgery unit is fully equipped with state-of-the-art medical devices, and all kinds of procedures could be performed in our center except for the heart transplant.
Our department works in cooperation with hospitals in Europe and in the USA; we achieved many firsts in Turkey and acted as a leader in implementing many new applications by bringing in every method that would be useful for our patients and viable for our country.
Our team is one of the first teams that performed Endo stent applications; besides this team was the first to perform radiofrequency ablation in arrhythmia surgery in Turkey. Radiofrequency ablation puts patients at ease by making the arrhythmias disappear.
Memorial is the first hospital in Turkey that brought in the AESOP robotic arm (a surgical robot) to be used in coronary bypass surgeries. Our Center uses a thermal camera in coronary by pass surgeries that only a few centers in the world have, also Memorial was the first hospital that used this system in Turkey.
At Memorial Hospital, we have a system that connects all patient monitors to each other with a network. Thanks to this technology, our physicians can keep track of patient information anytime, anywhere via a personal card installed in their cell phone.
Our department leads and encourages innovations in cardiovascular surgery. We are the first team who used arm vessel in by pass surgery and this method is now being commonly used thanks to our team.
Our team keeps up to date with all the innovations (national and international) of cardiovascular surgery and collaborates with experienced and competent physicians with mutual knowledge sharing. By organizing public meetings like health conferences and heart yoga we aim to inform cardiac patients and their families about heart health.
An important feature that distinguishes us from other hospitals is the use of complementary medical practices to support diagnosis and treatment. We used Feng- Shui principles to design our intensive care unit. We feature components like central system, light and sound; we have non stop music broadcast, and we have a camera & phone system to enable patient communication with their relatives.
About Dental Aesthetic Procedures
Thanks to the innovations in dental medicine such as dental implants, porcelain veneers, and tooth whitening treatments, it is now possible to achieve a beautiful smile and asymmetric, balanced face.
Dental treatments are easily performed by experienced dental surgeons under general anesthesia to meet the surgical needs of especially mentally retarded patients, orthopedically handicapped patients, elderly patients, children and those who either feel an extreme fear of dental therapies or desire to have the therapy done in a short time.
About Eye Surgery Procedures
Machine-driven and manual devices such as auto refractor keratometer, air puff, and applanation tonometer (for the measurement of intraocular pressure), direct and indirect ophthalmoscope are being used in our center; and patient records are saved in our computer database.
Every single ophthalmology is performed by experienced surgeons using the latest technology and devices. Almost 100% of the cataract surgeries are being performed under drop anesthesia using the Phacoemulsification Technique that does not require stitches. All kinds of complicated vitreoretinal surgeries are successfully performed including pars plana vitrectomy ( to treat vision loss due to diabetes), internal limiting membrane peeling, foveal translocation surgery for macular degeneration due to senior age are being performed with great success.
Cornea transplants are performed using donor corneas attained from Eye Banks.
Glaucoma (eye tension), cross-eyed vision and retina decollement surgeries are carried out using the most appropriate methods.
Excimer Laser applications performed for correction of myopic, astigmatic and hypermetropic vision are being carried out using the LASIK method and drop anesthesia.
25 years ago, the idea of treating the refractive errors by changing the declivity of the cornea, improved the scratch surgeries of Fyodorov. The procedure to treat myopia was relying on flattening the cornea by scratching it with diamond blades. Comparative satisfaction achieved with this technique forced scientists to search for better techniques.
20 years ago, researchers found out that excimer laser can create an ablation (destruction of the tissue by so to say vaporizing it) of 0,25-micron thickness. Thanks to improvements of the technique; excimer laser is now very consistent and reliable. For about 15 years refractive errors are being treated with excimer laser all over the world as well as in our country.
Every single laser pulse embraces the ligaments between the corneal cells. The sensitivity of this procedure is up to 0,25-micron thickness. In excimer laser technology, the laser beam ablates (in desired thickness and width) the targeted tissue. Thus, refractivity of the eye changes as desired. This technique does not scratch the eye, therefore pressure alterations do not jeopardize the integrity of the eye. Since the laser only influences some specific areas of the cornea, it does not harm the optic center.
Operations were used to be performed using a technique called PRK; however, today’s medical sciences prefer Lasik or Lasek depending on the condition of the eye
This technique is being used since 1994. Lasik excimer laser is used for cutting a flap in the cornea and folding it back. Thanks to this technique, pain after the surgery decreased a lot. The patients reach an adequate vision level the very next day. Even high refractive errors might be treated with LASIk. No distinctive stain occurs in the cornea. It is very rare for the refractive error to redevelop after the LASIK surgery. The stabilization is completed within a month. If the patient still needs glasses after a month, a second LASIK surgery might be performed by simply folding the existent flap. In suitable eyes, LASIK surgery shows satisfactory results with up to +6,00 hypermetropia and up to -12,00 myopia treatment.
The purpose of refractive surgery is to minimize or to exterminate the refractive error if possible. If the patient can see without eyeglasses ( as good as he/she sees with them) after the surgery then it is considered a successful result. The excimer laser is a FDA approved technology and millions of people were treated with it. Lasik is performed under drop anesthesia. Eyelids are wide open with the aid of a tool so that the patient does not blink. After marking the center of the cornea, a microkeratome that will create the flop is disposed into the eye. While preparing the flap, the sensation of light disappears for 3 to 4 seconds because of the pressure which was created by the keraton. Laser treatment does not last more than a minute. The procedure ends with an antibiotic drop after the eye is carefully cleaned and the flop is folded back. The first day, the eye may burns, itches or feels like there is something in it, but it should not give any discomfort the next day. It is very important that no wrinkle occurs on the flap after the surgery. Therefore the eye should not be rubbed for a month (most importantly the first days). If wrinkle occurs, the flap should be folded back by the physician.
It is performed on patients whom corneas are not thick enough for the LASIK. This procedure is also performed under drop anesthesia. The patient does not feel any pain during the laser procedure. The front layer of the cornea is lifted then the laser is performed. After the laser is performed, the layer of the cornea is folded back and a contact lens is disposed on the top of it. The contact lens stays on until this layer heals itself. The first couple of days, the eye may burns, itches or feels like there is something in it. With this technique, the vision starts improving the next day however it takes longer to recover (3 to 4 weeks) then the LASIK.
Some of the devices we have in our ophthalmology
Topcon Compu vision eye examination systems
- Zeiss Visu200 and Visu210 Ophtalmic microsurgery microscopes
- Alcon Legacy2000 facoemulsification devices
- Allergan Diplomax facoemulsification device
- Alcon Acurus Vitrektomi+facoemulsification device
- Optikon Asistan facoemulsification device
- Schwind Esiris Excimer Laser
- Argon Laser
- YAG Laser
- Zeiss IOLMaster
- Zeiss OCT
- HRII Digital FF+ICG Angiograph
- Oculus computed perimeter
- Corneal Topograph
- Wavefront Analyser
- Bausch&Lomb Orbscan IIz
- A-B Scan Eye Ultrasonography